The bicycle is a vehicle that is driven by muscle. Most often these are the muscles of the legs, but there are also bikes that are driven by the strength of our hands. Rather, they are intended for disabled people.
The history of the bicycle
The inventor of the first bicycle is Frenchman de Sivrac that your vehicle called a "machine running". It was in the late eighteenth century. The bike was made entirely of wood, and it was not possible twisting while driving. The driver while driving had to repel down, because there was no mechanism driving, and when he wanted to change the direction of travel, had to stop, switch the bike and just keep going.
In 1816 the German Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun improved prototype bike (machine running), and added the possibility of twisting while driving. The vehicle was named after its inventor trolley (Draisine). In subsequent versions, also added a brake that start after pulling the rope and saddle with adjustable height.
In 1839. Scot Kirkpatrick MacMillan developed a vehicle with a drive mechanism. He acted on the basis of the rods to move the legs, which were connected with cranks mounted on the hub of the rear wheel and by moving the legs alternately, the rear wheel was fitted in motion. The best present this picture:
In 1861 in France, Pierre Michaux and his son Ernest created the crank mechanism, located at the hub of the front wheel. The bike that replaced the wooden rod steel bars and the saddle used an elastic rod which softened the impact. This vehicle was called wielocypedem. Then it started to improve and created bicycle. He stood out on a much larger wheel at the front than at the back. They attempted in this way to get more speed, but reduced to driving safety, because the cyclist was quite high.
In 1879. Englishman Harry John Lawson constructed a bike that had the drive to the rear wheel. To call the pedals to the rear wheel used a chain, but it decreased the size of the wheels.
In 1885, John Starley, began producing an improved version of the vehicle Lawson called Rover. Starley equalized the size of the wheels on the front and the back, and used a square frame.
In 1888, a veterinarian John Dunlop from Belfast introduced pneumatic tires, then used instead of full rubber.
In 1902. James Henry Sturmey Archer and created transmissions, for changing gears while driving.
The first attempts of conquest of the island took Caesar in the years 55-54 r.p.n.e., which prevented him from the wars in Gaul. After the preparations undertaken during the reign of Caligula raid was made by Emperor Claudius in 43 r. A.D. (Commander Aulus Plautius), gradually making the conquest of other areas. Approx. 128 r. Was completed defense Hadrian's Wall, separating the territories conquered by the Romans from areas niepodbitych. In 142 r. Stretched the boundary line of the Forth - Clyde in the form of a further strengthening, Shaft Antonina.
Approx. 197 r. A division of the island into two provinces (Britannia Superior and Inferior); approx. 305 in the new administrative division of Diocletian turned it into one of 13 Diocese of the Empire (Britanniae) divided into 5 provinces (Britanni I, Maxima Caesariensis, Flavia Caesariensis, Valentia, Britanni II). Since the end of the third century was exposed to attacks and invasions of the barbarians, temporarily found also under the authority of local usurpers (Carausius and Allektusa) or pretenders (Magnus Maximus).
Along with the upcoming fall of the empire, Britain was the first in the western province lost by Rome. It is understood that in 409 . other military and civil administration eventually withdrew to the continent.